Chapter XXVII - Of the Sacraments

I. Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace,(Rom 4:11, Gen 17:7, 10) immediately instituted by God,(Matt 28:19, 1 Cor 11:23) to represent Christ and His benefits; and to confirm our interest in Him:(1 Cor 10:16, 11:25-26, Gal 3:27, 3:17) as also, to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the Church and the rest of the world;(Rom 15:8, Ex 12:48, Gen 34:14) and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to His Word.(Rom 6:3-4, 1 Cor 10:16, 21)

II. There is, in every sacrament, a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.(Gen 17:10, Matt 26:27-28, Titus 3:5)

III. The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither does the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that does administer it:(Rom 2:28-29, 1 Pet 3:21) but upon the work of the Spirit,(Matt 3:11, 1 Cor 12:13) and the word of institution, which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.(Matt 26:27-28, Matt 28:19-20)

IV. There are only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say, Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord: neither of which may be dispensed by any, but by a minister of the Word lawfully ordained.(Matt 28:19, 1 Cor 11:20, 23, 4:1, Heb 5:4)

V. The sacraments of the Old Testament in regard to the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the new.(1 Cor 10:1-4)