Chapter XXIII - Of the Civil Magistrate

I. God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil magistrates, to be, under Him, over the people, for His own glory, and the public good: and, to this end, has armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil doers.(Rom 13:1-4, 1 Pet 2:13-14)

II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto:(Pro 8:15-16, Rom 13:1-2, 4) in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth;(Psa 2:10, 12, 1 tim 2:2, Psa 82:3-4, 2 Sam 23:3, 1 Pet 2:13) so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war, upon just and necessary occasion.(Luke 3:14, Rom 13:4, Matt 8:9-10, Acts 10:1-2, Rev 17:14, 16)

III. Civil magistrates may not assume to themselves the administration of the Word and sacraments; or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven;(2 Chron 26:18, Matt 18:17, 16:19, 1 Cor 12:28-29, Eph 4:11-12, 1 Cor 4:1-2, Rom 10:15, Heb 5:4) yet he has authority, and it is his duty, to take order that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordainances of God duly settled, administrated, and observed.(Isa 49:23, Psa 122:9, Ezra 7:23, 25-28, Lev 24:16, Deut 13:5-6, 12, 2 Kings 18;4, 1 Chron 13:1-8, 2 Kings 24:1-25, 2 Chron 34:33, 15:12-13) For the better effecting whereof, he has power to call synods, to be present at them and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God.(2 Chron 19:8-11, 2 Chron 29-30, Matt 2:4-5)

IV. It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates,(1 Tim 2:1-2) to honor their persons,(1 Pet 2:17) to pay them tribute or other dues,(Rom 13:6-7) to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience' sake.(Rom 13:5, Titus 3:1) Infidelity, or difference in religion, does not make void the magistrates' just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to them:(1 Pet 2:13-14, 16) from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted,(Rom 13:1, 1 Kings 2:35, Acts 25:9-11, 2 Pet 2:1, 10-11, Jude 8, 9-11) much less has the Pope any power and jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and, least of all, to deprive them of their dominions, or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretence whatsoever.(2 Thess 2:4, Rev 13:15-17)